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Analytical-Literal Translation

Questions on the ALT:


The following are e-mails I received in 2000 asking questions about the Analytical-Literal Translation (ALT). The e-mailers' questions and comments are in black and enclosed in "greater than" and "lesser than" signs. My responses are in red.

>Hi, Gary.

Are you planning or considering making an interlinear version of the ALT?

Best regards,

That is something I never thought of. I guess I *could* do it given that the ALT is a very literal translation, and I do have the MT in Word format (using the Windows Symbol font) since Maurice Robinson sent it to me. But it would be a LOT of work. I tried one short verse just to see what would be involved. And trying to line up the words would be very time consuming! So I doubt I would every try doing it, but I will put the idea on the back burner.

>Dear Sir,

Greetings. I have a question for you concerning your reading of Heb 4:8 in the ALT. Why did you chose 'Joshua" instead of 'Jesus'? I recently purchased the PC Study Bible V3.1, the interlinear contained has Ieesous (Strong #2424) in the Greek, which does not translate as Joshua in the English.

I am almost done with the NLT. This will be the last time I ever read a paraphrase. I have a new copy of the McArthur Study Bible NKJV which I will read next. I got a good price on the MKJV, the Green Literal Version and the latest four volume set of the Green Interlinear Bible ($80 in leather binding!!!). The day is coming, when I will get a new computer. I am tired of all the bugs, "Error" screens, crashes and freezes in Windows and Microsoft Crash Ware in general. I will get a Mac. At that point I will order the Online Bible and figure what to do with the PC Study Bible. This will not happen for a while since I am waiting for the Mac OS X to come out sometime next year. I wish to say your site is a favorite of mine, I get a lot out of all the articles you have posted. Keep up the good work. God

Bless you,


The Greek word Ieesous can be translated as either Jesus or Joshua. It is the word used throughout the LXX for Joshua, as in the Joshua the son of Nun.

When a word can have more than one meaning, as is often the case, context determines which translation to use. In the case of Heb 4:8, along with Acts 7:45, the context clearly indicates it should be rendered as Joshua, not Jesus. 

Now I know KJV only people have very long-winded arguments as to how Jesus would fit in these verses. I've read their explanations and can't make head or tails of them. But with Joshua in these verses, they make perfect and simple sense. 

I hope that helps. 

I know what you mean about Windows crashes. But I'm not quite ready to switch to a Mac. And thanks for the kind comments. 

>Hi Gary,

Is there a hardcopy print (book) available of your ALT project or will there be in the future?

I've never read the Bible and would like to very much. I would like to read one that has been translated as accurately as possible to the original text hence my interest in your site.

Thanks for any help.

The ALT is not yet available in hardcopy format. It will be eventually, but it will be a while. In the meantime, you might want to try the Literal Translation of the Bible. It is available from here.

Note: The ALT should be available in hardcopy format by the summer of 2001. When it is ready it will be available from the publisher AuthorHouse and from conventional and online bookstores.

>Dear Gary,

Hope you're in good health.<

Thank you, I'm doing pretty well.

>Doesn't the use of "the FOURTH watch" in the Gospels prove that they were using Roman time and not Jewish time, since as far as I know the Jews had only up till the third watch.

Mt 14:25  - "But in the fourth watch of the night [i.e., between 3:00 - 6:00 a.m.], Jesus went away to them, walking about upon the sea."


I checked several Bible dictionaries and commentaries. All stated that the Jews divided the night into three watches in OT times, but in NT times the Jews adopted the Roman method of dividing the night into four watches of three hours each.

> I see. Would it be possible for you to give me the evidence, given in the dictionaries and commentaries you checked, that proves that the Jews adopted the Roman method...?


I simply looked up the verse in PC Study Bible, and checked all the cross-referenced Bible dictionaries and commentaries. If you have this or a similar Bible program, you can easily do the same.

> Thanks Gary for your answer and prompt replies.

God bless,

>Dear Bro&Sis:

I have found your web page and your ALT. I have ONE simple question? Philemon 1:2:   adelphE is "sister"?

yes? or no?

Philemon 1:1 - adelphos is "brother"?

yes? or no?

I read brother in Phm1:1 but NOT sister in Phm1:2. why?

A fellow translator,

Yes, aldephe would be sister; however, there is a textual variant in Plmn 1:2. The CT has aldephe, but the TR/ MT has tn agapete (the beloved). Since my translation is being based on the TR (and later will be converted to the MT), it has "beloved."

Your question here does help me to settle an issue I've been struggling with. When I convert the ALT to the MT, I am planning on footnoting textual variants between the MT and the TR. But I have been struggling with whether I should also take the time to footnote CT variants. But possible confusions caused by variants is one good reason to footnote both the TR and CT variants.

As for 1:1, adelphos is masculine, and thus I am translating it as "brother." However, when used in the plural and in a more inclusive sense, I am using "brother [and sister]" (see 1Cor 1:10 for example).

I hope that helps.

>Beloved Brother,

Thank You, for your clear response....


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