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Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible:
Translated by Gary F.
the Director of Darkness to Light
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Preface to the Second Edition
The Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible (ALT) is dedicated to the glory of God and the spiritual growth of His people. It is translated by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry (www.dtl.org).
The purpose of the ALT is to provide a translation of the Greek New Testament that will enable the reader to come as close to the Greek text as possible without actually having to be proficient in Greek. And the name of the ALT reflects this purpose.
"Literal" refers to the fact that the ALT is a word for word translation. All words in the original text are translated--nothing is omitted. The original grammar of the text is retained as much as possible. Any words added for clarity are bracketed, so nothing is added without it being indicated as such.
"Analytical" refers to the detailed "analysis" done on the grammar of the text. The grammar is then translated in way which brings out "nuances" of the original text that are often missed in traditional translations.
In addition, "analytical" refers to the aids that are included within the text which enable the reader to "analyze" and understand the text. Such information is bracketed. It includes the following:
- Alternative translations for words and phrases.
- The figurative meanings of words and phrases.
- Modern-day equivalents for measurement and monetary units and time designations.
- Explanatory notes.
- References for Old Testament quotations and other cross-references.
The Greek text used for the ALT is the Byzantine Majority Text.1 The ALT is one of the first translations of the New Testament to utilize this newest and most accurate Greek text. This second edition of the ALT even includes all the updates that were made for the forthcoming second edition of the Byzantine text. So the ALT is based on the most up-to-date and accurate Greek text possible.
This Greek text differs somewhat from the Textus Receptus and the Critical Text, the two other Greek texts which are used for translating the Bible. To aid in comparing the ALT with other Bible versions, the most important textual variants between these three Greek texts are listed in an appendix.
So the ALT is the ideal Bible version for studying the Bible. No other Bible version includes all of the above features, and no other Bible version provides the accuracy and attention to detail that the ALT provides.
In preparation for this second edition, the entire text was reviewed numerous times. Changes were made to improve the accuracy and consistency of the translations and to improve the readability. Additional bracketed materials were added to further aid in understanding the New Testament.
This second edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation is being presented to the Christian public in the belief that the Scriptures are "God-breathed" and that EVERY word of God is important to our salvation and Christian life. As the Scriptures proclaim:
4But answering, He said, "It has been written, 'A person will not live on bread alone, but on every word coming out through [the] mouth of God'" (Matthew 4:4).
28But He said, "But rather, happy [are] the ones hearing the word of God and keeping [fig., obeying] [it]!" (Luke 11:28).
30Now indeed many other signs Jesus also did in the presence of His disciples which have not been written in this scroll. 31But these have been written so that you* shall believe [or, be convinced] that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and so that believing you* shall be having life in His name (John 20:30,31).
16All Scripture [is] God-breathed and [is] beneficial for teaching [or, doctrine], for verification [or, reproof], for correcting faults, for instruction in righteousness [or, the behavior that God requires], 17so that the person of God shall be fully qualified [or, perfectly fit], having been completely equipped for every good work (1Timothy 3:16,17).
12For the word of God [is] living and effective and sharper than every double-edged sword, and [is] penetrating as far as [the] division of both soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and [is] able to discern [the] thoughts and intentions of the heart (Hebrews 4:12).
5And the One sitting on the throne said, "Look! I am making all things new!" And He says to me, "Write, because these words are true and trustworthy" (Revelation 21:5).
1Specifically: The Greek New Testament: Byzantine Textform. Second Edition. Complied, arranged, and thoroughly updated by Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont. Publication forthcoming. Dr. Robinson graciously provided a list of all of the updates for the forthcoming text to the translator of the ALT so that this ALT could include these updates. Many thanks to him in this regard.
Sample Passages from the Second Edition
Abbreviations and Notations
Below are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the following excerpts from the second edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation.
[the] - Words added for clarity are bracketed.
[Isaiah 7:14] -- Reference for the preceding OT quote. The quote itself is in italics.
"Yahweh is Salvation" -- Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks.
and elsewhere in -- The bracketed information applies to other occurrences of the preceding word or phrase in the given range, but not necessarily to all occurrences.
and throughout/ and in -- The bracketed information applies to all occurrences of the preceding word or phrase throughout the given range.
fig. - Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of preceding literal translation.
Gr. - Transliteration of the Greek word previously translated.
i.e. - Explanatory note ("that is" or "in explanation").
LXX - Septuagint. The OT quote is taken from this third century B.C., Greek translation of the Hebrew OT instead of the Hebrew text.
NT -- New Testament
OT -- Old Testament
or - Alternative translation of the preceding word or phrase.
LORD -- Lord -- The former indicates the OT verse from which the quote is taken has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God). The latter indicates the OT has adonai (the general word for "lord").
but - Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as "but" when used in an adversative sense).
you* - Indicates the original is plural (also, your*). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular.
you - Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, I, he, she, etc.).
7"Now when you* pray, do not use vain repetitions [or, many meaningless words] like the Gentiles, for they suppose that they will be heard by their many words. 8Therefore, you* shall not be like them, for your* Father knows what [things] you* have need of before you* ask Him. 9Therefore, you*, be praying like this:
Our Father, the [One] in the heavens, let Your name be regarded as holy.
10Let Your kingdom come.
Let Your will be done, as in heaven, [so] also on the earth.
11Give us today the bread sufficient for the day.
12And forgive us our debts [fig., sins], in the same way as we also forgive our debtors [fig., the ones having sinned against us].
13And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from evil [or, from the evil [one]].
Because Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory into the ages [fig., forever]! So be it [Gr. amen]!
14"For, if you* forgive the people their transgressions, your* Father, the [One] in the heavens, will also forgive you,* 15but if you* do not forgive the people their transgressions, neither will your* Father forgive your* transgressions.
1In the beginning was the Word [fig., the Expression of [Divine] Logic], and the Word was with [fig., in communion with] God, and the Word was God [fig., was as to His essence God]. 2This One was in the beginning with God. 3All [things] came to be through Him, and without Him not even one thing came to be which has come to be. 4In Him was life, and the life was the Light of the people. 5And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not apprehend it.
6There came a man having been sent from God, [the] name to him [fig., whose name] [was] John. 7This one came for a testimony, so that he should testify concerning the Light, so that all should believe through him. 8That one was not the Light, but [he came] so that he should testify concerning the Light. 9He was the true Light which enlightens every person coming into the world. 10He was in the world, and the world came to be through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him. 12But as many as received Him, He gave to them authority to become children of God--to the ones believing [or, trusting] in His name, 13who were begotten, not from [or, by] bloods, nor from a will of [the] flesh, nor from [the] will of a man, but from God.
14And the Word [fig., the Expression of [Divine] Logic] became flesh and tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of an only-begotten [or, uniquely-begotten] from [the] Father, full of grace and truth. 15John testifies concerning Him and has cried out, saying, "This was [the One concerning] whom I said, 'The One coming after me before me has come to be, for He was before me.'" 16And out of His fullness we all received, even grace in place of grace. 17For the law was given through Moses: grace and truth came to be through Jesus Christ. 18No one has seen God at any time. The only-begotten [or, unique] Son, the One in the bosom of the Father, that One explained [Him] [or, made [Him] known].
19And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites, so that they should question him, "You, who are you?" 20And he confessed and did not deny, and confessed, "I am not the Christ ["the Anointed One"]." 21And they questioned him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" And he says, "I am not."--"Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." 22So they said to him, "Who are you, so that we shall give an answer to the ones sending us? What do you say concerning yourself?" 23He said, "I [am] 'a voice shouting in the wilderness: "Make straight the way of [the] LORD,"' just as Isaiah the prophet said." [Isaiah 40:3, LXX]
24And the ones having been sent were from the Pharisees. 25And they questioned him and said to him, "Why then do you baptize [or, immerse, and throughout book], if you are not the Christ nor Elijah nor the Prophet?" 26John answered them saying, "I baptize in water [or, with water, and throughout book], but He has stood in the midst of you* whom you* do not know. 27He is the One coming after me, who has come to be before me, of whom I am not worthy that I untie the strap of His sandal." 28These things took place in Bethany, beyond the Jordan [River], where John was baptizing.
29The next day he sees Jesus coming towards him and says, "Look! The Lamb of God, the One taking away the sin of the world! 30This is [the One] concerning whom I said, 'After me comes a Man, who has come before me, because He was before me.' 31And I did not know Him. However, so that He should be revealed to Israel, for this reason I came in water baptizing."
32And John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit coming down as a dove out of heaven, and He remained upon Him. 33And I did not know Him; but the One having sent me to baptize in water, that [One] said to me, 'Upon whomever you see the Spirit coming down and remaining upon Him, this is the One baptizing in [or, with] [the] Holy Spirit.' 34And I have seen and have testified that this is the Son of God!"
16But while Paul [was] waiting for them in Athens, his spirit was being provoked within him, observing the city being full of idols. 17Therefore indeed, he began reasoning in the synagogue with the Jews and with the God-worshiping [Greeks] and in the marketplace every day with the [people] coming by. 18Then also some of the Epicurean and the Stoic philosophers began disputing with him, and some were saying, "What does this seed picker [fig., babbler] wish to be saying?" But others [said], "He seems to be a proclaimer of strange deities," because he was proclaiming the Gospel of Jesus and the resurrection [Gr., anastasia] to them [i.e. they mistook Jesus to be just another god and Anastasia to be the name of Jesus' goddess wife].
19And having taken him, they brought [him] to the Areopagus [i.e. where the Athenian court met], saying, "Are we able to know what this new teaching [is], the one being spoken by you? 20For you are bringing some startling [things] to our ears. So we wish to know what these [things] might be [fig., mean]." 21(Now all Athenians and the foreigners visiting [there] were spending their time for nothing other than to be saying and to be hearing something new.)
22So Paul having stood in [the] middle of the Areopagus, said, "Men, Athenians, I perceive you* as [being] extremely fearful of the gods in all things. 23For passing through and contemplating your* objects of worship, I found also an altar on which had been inscribed: 'To an unknown God.' Therefore, [the One] whom you* are practicing piety [towards] [or, worshiping] without knowing, this One I proclaim to you*.
24"The God, the One having made the world [or, universe] and all the [things] in it, this One being Lord of heaven and of earth does not dwell in temples made with human hands, 25nor is He served by [the] hands of people, [as if] needing something, [since] He is giving to all life and breath with respect to [fig., in] all [things]. 26And He made from one blood every nation of human beings to be living on all the face of the earth, having designated times having been appointed [for them] and the boundaries of their habitation, 27[in order for them] to be seeking the Lord, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find [Him], and yet He is not far from each one of us. 28'For in Him we live and move and are [fig., exist],' as also some of your* poets have said, 'For we are also His offspring' [i.e. quoting Epimendes (c. 600 B.C.) and Aratus of Cilia (c. 270 B.C.), respectively].
29"Therefore, being offspring of God, we ought not to be thinking the Divine Nature to be similar to gold or silver or stone, an image [shaped by] humanity's skill and imagination. 30Therefore indeed, [these] times of ignorance having overlooked, God is now giving strict orders to all people everywhere to be repenting, 31because He set a day in which He is about to be judging the inhabited earth in righteousness by a Man whom He designated, having given assurance to all by having raised Him from [the] dead!"
32But having heard of [the] resurrection of [the] dead, some indeed began mocking, but others said, "We will hear you again concerning this." 33And so Paul went out from their midst. 34But some men having been joined to him, believed, among whom [were] also Dionysius the Areopagite [i.e. one of the 12 members of the Athenian court] and a woman by name Damaris and others with them.
1Consequently, [there is] now no condemnation to the [ones] in Christ Jesus, [who] do not walk about [fig., conduct themselves] according to [the] flesh, but according to [the] Spirit [or, to spirit, and possibly elsewhere in 8:2-15]. 2For the law of the Spirit of the life in Christ Jesus set me free from the law of sin and of death! 3For the [thing] impossible [for] the Law [to do] in that it was weak through the flesh, God [did], having sent His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and concerning sin, condemned sin in the flesh, 4so that the righteous requirement of the Law should be fulfilled in us, the [ones] not walking about [fig., conducting ourselves] according to [the] flesh, but according to [the] Spirit.
5For the ones according to [the] flesh set their minds on the [things] of the flesh, but the [ones] according to [the] Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 6For the mind-set [or, the way of thinking] of the flesh [is] death, but the mind-set of the Spirit [is] life and peace. 7Because the mind-set of the flesh [is] hostile towards God, for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed is it able [to be]. 8Now the ones being in [the] flesh are not able to please God.
9But you* are not in [the] flesh but in [the] Spirit, since [the] Spirit of God dwells in you*; but if anyone does not have [the] Spirit of Christ, this one is not His. 10But if Christ [is] in you*, on the one hand the body [is] dead because of sin, on the other hand the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness. 11But if the Spirit of the One having raised up Jesus from [the] dead dwells in you*, the One having raised up Christ from [the] dead will also give life to your* mortal bodies through His Spirit indwelling in you.*
12So, consequently, brothers [and sisters], we are debtors [fig., under obligation], not to the flesh to be living according to the flesh. 13For if you* live according to [the] flesh, you* are about to die; but if by [the] Spirit you* put to death the deeds of the body, you* will live.
14For as many as are led by [the] Spirit of God, these are the sons [and daughters] of God. 15For you* did not receive a spirit of slavery again for fear, but you* received [the] Spirit of adoption [i.e., the formal and legal declaration that we are His children] in which we cry out, "Dad [Gr. Abba], Father!" 16The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God! 17Now if children, also heirs-heirs on the one hand of God, joint-heirs on the other hand with Christ, since we suffer together, so that we shall also be glorified together.
18For I consider that the sufferings of the present time [are] not worthy [to be compared] with the glory about to be revealed in us!
1If I speak with the tongues of people and of angels, but I do not have love, I have become [as] brass sounding or a cymbal tinkling. 2And if I am having [the gift of] prophecy and know all secrets [or, mysteries] and all knowledge, and if I am having all faith so as to be removing mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. 3And if I dole out all my possessions, and if I hand over my body so that I shall be burned, but am not having love, I am not at all benefited.
4Love waits patiently; it acts kindly. Love does not envy [or, is not jealous]; love does not boast; it does not become haughty. 5It does not behave disgracefully; it does not seek its own [things]; it is not provoked [or, irritated]; it does not keep a record of evil. 6It does not rejoice over unrighteousness, but it rejoices with the truth. 7It puts up with all [things], believes all, hopes [or, confidently expects] all, endures all.
8Love never fails. But if [there be] prophecies, they will become useless; if tongues, they will cease by themselves; if knowledge, it will become useless. 9Now we know by part, and we prophesy by part. 10But when the perfect [or, complete] comes, then the [thing] by part [fig., which is partial] will become useless. 11When I was a child, I was speaking as a child, I was thinking as a child, I was reasoning as a child; but when I have become a man, I have put away the [things] of the child. 12For we now see by means of a mirror by reflection [fig., indirectly], but then face to face; now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I also was known.
13But now these three remain: faith, hope [or, confident expectation], [and] love--but [the] greatest of these [is] love.
1From where [come] wars and fights [fig., quarrels and angry arguments] among you*? Is it not from here--out of your* passions [or, desires for pleasure], the ones waging war in your* body parts? 2You* desire [or, lust for], and you* do not have. You* murder and are jealous and are not able to obtain. You* fight and wage war [fig., argue angrily and quarrel]. But you* do not have because you* do not ask. 3You* ask, and you* do not receive, because you* ask wrongly [or, with wrong motives], so that you* should spend [it] on your* passions [or, desires for pleasure].
4Adulterers and adulteresses! Do you* not know that the friendship of the world is hostility towards God? So whoever wants to be a friend of the world is made an enemy of [or, is hostile towards] God. 5Do you* think that the Scripture speaks in vain [or, for no purpose]? Does the Spirit which [has] dwelt in us yearn to [the point of] envy? 6But He gives greater grace. For this reason, He says, "God resists [or, sets Himself in opposition against] proud [people], but He gives grace to humble [people]." [Prov 3:34, LXX]
7Therefore, be subjected to God, but stand up against [or, resist] the Devil, and he will flee from you*. 8Draw near to God, and He will draw near to you*. Cleanse [fig., Purify] [your*] hands, sinners! And purify [your*] hearts, double-minded [ones] [or, doubters]! 9Be miserable and mourn and weep! Let your* laughter be changed into mourning and [your*] joy into gloom. 10Be humbled [or, Humble yourselves] before the Lord, and He will exalt you*.
11Stop speaking evil of [or, slandering] one another, brothers [and sisters]. The one speaking evil of a brother and judging his brother speaks evil of [the] Law and judges [the] Law. But if you judge [the] Law, you are not a doer of [the] Law but a judge. 12[There] is one Lawgiver, the One able to save and to destroy. But who are you who judges the other [or, the different [one]]?
13Now listen! The ones saying, "Today or tomorrow we shall travel into such and such a city and shall spend one year there, and we shall carry on business and shall make profit," 14[you*] who do not know the [events] of tomorrow. For what [is] your* life? For it will be a vapor, the one appearing for a little while, but then also vanishing. 15Instead, you* [ought] to be saying, "If the Lord wills, we shall live, and we also shall do this or that." 16But now you* boast in your* pretentious pride; all such boasting is evil.
17So to the one knowing to be doing good and not doing [it], to him it is sin.
1And I saw in the right hand of the One sitting on the throne a scroll having been written inside and outside, having been sealed with seven seals. 2And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, "Who is worthy to open the scroll and to break its seals?" 3And no one in the heaven above nor on the earth nor under the earth was being able to open the scroll, nor to be looking at it. 4And I began weeping greatly, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll, nor to be looking at it.
5And one of the elders says to me, "Stop weeping! Listen! The Lion overcame, the One from the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, the One opening the scroll and its seven seals." 6And I saw in [the] middle of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in [the] middle of the elders, a Lamb having stood as if having been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits [fig., which is the seven-fold Spirit] of God having been sent into all the earth. 7And He came and has taken out of the right hand of the One sitting on the throne. 8And when He took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp and golden bowls full of incenses, which are prayers of the holy ones [or, saints].
9And they sing a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slain, and You redeemed us to God by Your blood, out of every tribe and tongue [fig., language group] and people and nation, 10and made them kings and priests to our God, and they will reign on the earth!"
11And I looked, and I heard as [it were the] voice of many angels around the throne and of the living creatures and of the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand [times] ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, 12saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb, the One having been slain, to receive the power and the wealth and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing!"
13And every creature which is in heaven and in the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and the [things] in them, I heard all saying, "To the One sitting on the throne and to the Lamb, [be] the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might [or, dominion] into the ages of the ages [fig., forever and ever]! So be it!" 14And the four living creatures saying the "So be it" and the elders fell down and prostrated themselves in worship.
Important Textual Variants
This second edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible is based on the forthcoming second edition of the Byzantine Majority Text. The translator believes this Greek text most accurately reflects the original manuscripts. However, there are two other Greek texts which are often used for Bible translation. These are the Textus Receptus (which the King James Version and the New King James Version® are based on) and the Critical Text (which versions like the New American Standard Bible®, the New International Version®, and the New Living Translation® are based on).
For ease in comparing Bible translations, this appendix lists the most important textual variants between these three Greek texts.
Abbreviations and Notations
In addition to the abbreviations and notations seen in the ALT itself and which are listed above, the following abbreviations and notations are used in these excerpts from Appendix #1 for the above passages.
CT: - Critical Text
MT: - Byzantine Majority Text.
TR: - Textus Receptus
MT/ TR: - Both indicated Greek texts have the same reading.
omits - The word(s) do not appear in the indicated Greek text.
6:13 MT/ TR: Because Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory into the ages! So be it! - CT: omits
1:18 MT/ TR: Son - CT: God
1:27 MT/ TR: who has come to be before me, - CT: omits
8:1 MT/ TR: [who] do not walk about according to flesh, but according to [the] Spirit. - CT: omits
4:4 MT/ TR: Adulterers and adulteresses! - CT: Adulteresses!
4:5 MT/ TR: dwelt - CT: He [has] caused to dwell
4:12 MT/ CT: Lawgiver - TR: Lawgiver and Judge
5:14 MT/ CT: worship. - TR: worship before [the One] living into the ages of the ages.
Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible: Second Edition. Copyright © 2005 by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry (www.dtl.org). Previously copyrighted © 1999, 2001 by Gary F. Zeolla.
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