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Analytical-Literal Translation of the Old Testament

(Septuagint)

Volume One: The Torah
Translated by Gary F. Zeolla, the Director of Darkness to Light

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Preface

Note: The paperback and hardback versions of the ALT are in double columns. But it is not possible to reproduce that format here.

The Analytical-Literal Translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint): Volume I: The Torah (ALT) is a companion to the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament. Both are translated by Gary F. Zeolla (www.Zeolla.org).

The ALT: Old Testament is being published in five volumes. They are:

Volume I – The Torah (Genesis to Deuteronomy)
Volume II – The Historical Books (Joshua to Esther)
Volume III – The Poetic Books (Job to Song of Solomon)
Volume IV – The Prophetic Books (Isaiah to Malachi)
Volume V – The Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books

Most Old Testaments are based on the Hebrew text. But this Old Testament (OT) is based on the Greek Septuagint (LXX). The LXX is a third century B.C. Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. The name and abbreviation comes from the tradition that 70 (or 72) Jewish scholars worked on its translation, six from each of the 12 tribes of Israel.

The importance of the LXX is that it was THE Bible of the early Church. This can be seen when comparing quotations from the OT in the New Testament (NT). When it can be determined, more often than not, the NT writers are quoting from the LXX rather than the Hebrew text.

Once the Church became predominately composed of Greek-speaking Gentiles rather than Aramaic-speaking Jews, the LXX was used almost exclusively. This can be seen when reading the writings of the early Church Fathers of the second and third centuries. They almost always quote from the LXX when quoting the OT.

In addition, most translations of the Bible into other languages in the early centuries were done from the LXX rather than the Hebrew text. It was not until the Church became mostly Latin speaking and began using the Latin Vulgate in the fourth century that use of the LXX began to fade.

The purpose of the ALT is to provide a translation of the Greek Septuagint that will enable the reader to come as close to the Greek text as possible without having to be proficient in Greek.

This first volume contains the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy). These five books are foundational to the rest of the Bible and to the Jewish religion.


Sample Passages from the ALT OT: Volume I: The Torah

Abbreviations and Notations

Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the ALT text.

Abbreviations and Notations in Brackets

[the] Words added for clarity are bracketed (e.g., Gen 1:1). But note, very often the definite article (“the”) is not used in the LXX with the word kurios (“Lord” or “Lord”). But the added article is not bracketed in this case only as its frequency made it prohibitive to do so.

[1Cor 15:45] – Reference for when the OT is quoted in the NT (e.g., Gen 2:7).

“father of a multitude” Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks (e.g., Gen 17:5).

About Modern-day equivalent for measurements and monetary units (e.g., Gen 6:15).

and elsewhere in The bracketed information applies to other occurrences of the preceding word or phrase in the given range, but not necessarily to all occurrences (e.g., Gen 12:7).

and throughout/ and in The bracketed information applies to all occurrences of the preceding word or phrase throughout the given range (e.g., Gen 16:17).

cp. Compare. A cross reference (e.g., Gen 1:27).

fig. Figurative. Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of preceding literal translation (e.g., Gen 1:2).

Gr. Greek. The Greek word previously translated, with the Greek letters transliterated (changed) into English letters (e.g., Gen 3:20).

Heb. Hebrew. Indicates the reading of the Hebrew OT when there is a notable difference between it and the LXX. But note, no attempt is made to indicate all differences between these two texts (e.g, Gen 2:6).

i.e. Explanatory note (“that is” or “in explanation”) (e.g., Gen 2:23).

lit. – Literal. Indicates the literal rendering when the text uses a less than literal rendering (e.g., Gen 1:6).

LXX Septuagint. Very often, the spelling of proper names in the LXX differs from how the name is commonly spelled. For notable names, the common spelling is used in the text, but the first time it appears in a book, the LXX spelling is also given (e.g., Gen 2:8). But note, no attempt is made to give the common spelling for all names.

or Alternative, traditional, or slightly less literal translation (e.g., Gen 1:8).

see Cross reference (e.g., Gen 25:34).

Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Notations

But Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla e.g., Gen 15:4) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as “but” when used in an adversative sense – e.g., Gen 1:2).

LORD – Lord The former indicates the Hebrew OT has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God –Gen 2:8). The latter indicates the Hebrew OT has adonai (the general word for “lord”) or that there is no equivalent in the Hebrew OT for the LXX’s use of “Lord” (Gr., kurios – e.g., Gen 6:22). When the LXX has “God” (Gr., theos) where the Hebrew has Yahweh, “GOD” is used (e.g., Exod 4:11).

you Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, he, she, etc. – e.g., Gen 4:7).

you* Indicates the original is plural (also, your* e.g., Gen 1:22). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular (e.g., Gen 3:9).

ALT Analytical-Literal Translation

 


Genesis 3-4

3

Now the serpent was wiser [or, more shrewd] [than] all the wild beasts upon the earth, which the LORD God made. [see Rev 12:9] And the serpent said to the woman, “What has God said, ‘You* shall by no means eat from every tree in the Paradise?’”  2And the woman said to the serpent, “We will eat of [the] fruit of [the] trees of the Paradise, 3but from [the] fruit of the tree which is in [the] middle of the Paradise, God said, ‘You* will not eat from it, neither shall you* touch it, so that not you* shall die.’” [cp., 2:17; i.e., God said nothing about not touching it] 4And the serpent said to the woman, “You* will not die [by] death [fig., will surely not die]. 5For God has known that in whatever day you* should eat from it your* eyes will be completely opened, and you* will be as gods, knowing good and evil.”

        6And the woman saw that the tree [was] good for food, and that [it was] pleasing to the eyes to see [or, to look upon] and beautiful is the [fruit] to contemplate, and having taken of its fruit she ate, and she gave to her husband with her, and they ate. [cp. 1Tim 2:14; 1John 2:15] 7And the eyes of the two were completely opened, and they came to know that they were naked, and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. 8And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking about in the Paradise in the afternoon; and both Adam and his wife hid themselves from [the] face of the LORD God in the midst of the tree[s] of the Paradise.

        9And the LORD God called Adam and said to him, “Adam, where are you?” 10And he said to Him, “Your voice I heard [as] You are walking about in the Paradise, and I feared because I am naked, and I hid myself.” 11And He said to him, “Who told you that you are naked? You did not eat from the tree which I commanded to you, this alone not to eat from it, did you?” 12And Adam said, “The woman whom You gave [to be] with me, she gave to me from the tree, and I ate.”

        13And the LORD God said to the woman, “Why have you done this?” And the woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.” 14And the LORD God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, you [are] cursed away from all livestock and away from all the wild beasts of the earth; upon your breast and belly you will go, and you will eat earth all the days of your life. 15And I will put enmity [or, hostility] between you and between the woman and between your seed and between her Seed. He will keep [Heb., bruise] your head, and you will keep [Heb., bruise] His heel.”

        16And to the woman He said, “Multiplying I will multiply [fig., I will greatly multiply] your pains and your groaning; in pain you will give birth to children. And your turning [fig., submission] [will be] to your husband, and he will lord over you.”

        17Then to Adam He said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and ate from the tree which I commanded to you, this only not to eat from it, cursed [is] the ground in your works, in pain you will eat of it all the days of your life. 18Thorns and thistles will it rise [fig., grow] to you, and you will eat the vegetation of the field. 19In sweat of your face will you eat your bread until you return to the earth out of which you were taken; for earth you are and to earth you will depart [or, return].” [Heb 9:27]

        20And Adam called the name of his wife Life [Gr., Zoe; Heb., Eve], because she [was the] mother of all the living. 21And the LORD God made for Adam and his wife clothes of [animal] skin [or, leather], and He clothed them.

        22And God said, “Behold, Adam has become as one of Us, to be knowing good and evil. And now lest he stretch forth his hand, and shall take of the tree of the life and shall eat, and he will live into the age [fig., forever]. 23And the LORD God sent him forth out of the Paradise of Luxury [or, Delight; Heb., Garden of Eden] to be working [or, cultivating] the ground out of which he was taken. 24And He cast out Adam and caused him to dwell over against the Paradise of Luxury, and He stationed the cherubs and the flaming sword turning about to be guarding the way of the tree of the life.

 

4

Now Adam knew [sexually] Eve his wife, and having conceived, she gave birth to Cain [“possession”] and said, “I have acquired a man through GOD.” 2And she added to [Cain] to give birth to his brother Abel [“vapor”]. And Abel became a shepherd of sheep, but Cain was working [or, tilling] the ground. 3And it happened after days [fig., after some time] [that] Cain brought from the fruits of the ground a sacrifice to the LORD. 4And Abel also brought from the firstborn of his sheep and from his fatlings [Heb., and from their fat], and GOD looked upon Abel and upon his gifts, 5but upon Cain and upon his sacrifices He did not pay attention to. And Cain was very grieved, and his countenance fell.

        6And the LORD God said to Cain, “Why are you become very sad, and why is your countenance fallen? 7You sinned, if you brought [it] rightly, but not rightly divided [it], have you not? Be still [or, silent], to you will be its [i.e., sin’s] turning, and you will rule over it.”

        8And Cain said to Abel his brother, “Let us pass through into the plain.” And it happened in [their] being in the plain, and [fig., that] Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and killed him. [cp. 1John 3:12; Jude 1:11] 9And GOD said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” But he said, “I do not know. I am not my brother’s keeper, am I?”  10And God said, “What did you do? [The] voice of [the] blood of your brother cries out to Me out of the ground! [cp. Matt 22:35; Heb 11:4] 11And now you [are] cursed from the earth which has opened its mouth to receive the blood of your brother from your hand. 12For you will work [or, till] the ground, and it will not add to its strength [fig., continue] to give to you; groaning and trembling you will be upon the earth.”

            13And Cain said to the LORD God, “My accusation [or, crime] [is] too great [for] me to be forgiven! 14If You cast me out today from [the] face of the ground, and I will be hidden from Your face, and I will be groaning and trembling upon the earth, then it will be [that] everyone finding me will kill me.” 15And the LORD God said to him, “Not so, everyone killing Cain will be paralyzed with seven-fold avenging.” And the LORD God placed a sign on Cain [that] everyone finding him [would] not kill him. 16Then Cain went out from [the] presence of GOD and dwelt in [the] land of Nod opposite [Heb., on the east of] Eden.

        17And Cain knew [sexually] his wife, and having conceived, she gave birth to Enoch; and he was building a city; and he named the city after the name of his son, Enoch.

        18Now to Enoch became [Heb., was born] Gaidad; and Gaidad fathered Mahalalel; and Mahalalel fathered Mathusala; and Mathusala fathered Lamech. 19And Lamech took to himself two wives; [the] name to the one [was] Ada, and [the] name to the second Sella. 20And Ada gave birth to Jobel; this one was the father of [the ones] dwelling in tents, keeping livestock. 21And [the] name of his brother was Jubal; this one was the one inventing [the] psalter [or, lyre] and harp. 22And Sella also gave birth to Thobel; he was a hammer-wielding blacksmith of copper and iron; and the sister of Thobel was Noema.

        23Now Lamech said to his wives, Ada and Sella, “Hear my voice, wives of Lamech, consider my words, because I killed a man to my wound [fig., sorrow] and a young man to my bruise [fig., grief]. 24Because having been avenged seven times out of [fig., on behalf of] Cain, but out of [fig., on behalf of] Lamech [it shall be] seventy times seven!”

        25Now Adam knew [sexually] Eve his wife, having conceived, she gave birth to a son, and she called his name Seth [“appointed”], saying, “For God has raised up to me a different seed instead of Abel, whom Cain killed.” 26And to Seth became a son, and he called his name Enosh [LXX, Enos]; he hoped to be calling on the name of the LORD God.

Exodus 3-4

 

3

And Moses was tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he brought the sheep below the wilderness, and came to Mount Horeb [LXX, Choreb]. 2Then [the] Angel of the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the bush, and he sees that the bush burns with fire, but the bush was not being consumed. 3Then Moses said, “Having passed by, I will see this great sight, why the bush is not being burnt up.”

        4So when the LORD saw that he approached to see, the LORD called him out of the bush, saying, “Moses, Moses!” So he said, “What is it?” 5And He said, “You shall not come near here; loosen the sandal[s] from your feet, for the place in which you have stood is holy ground.” [Acts 7:33] 6And He said to him, “I am the God of your father, [the] God of Abraham, and [the] God of Isaac, and [the] God of Jacob.” [Matt 22:32] So Moses turned away his face, for he was fearing to look upon before God. [see Acts 7:32]

        7Then the LORD said to Moses, “Having seen, I saw [fig., I have surely seen] the oppression of My people in Egypt, and I have heard their outcry [caused] by their task-masters; for I know their sorrow. 8And I came down to deliver them out of [the] hand of [the] Egyptians, and to bring them out of that land, and to bring them into a good and wide land, into a land flowing [with] milk and honey, into the place of the Canaanites [LXX, Chananites], and Hittites [LXX, Chettites], and Amorites, and Pherezites, and Gergesites, and Evites, and Jebusites.

        9“And now, behold, [the] outcry of the sons [and daughters] of Israel is come to Me, and I have seen the affliction with which the Egyptians afflict them. 10And now come, I will send you to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and you will bring out My people, the sons [and daughters] of Israel, from [the] land of Egypt.” [Acts 7:34] 11And Moses said to God, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and that I would bring out the sons [and daughters] of Israel from [the] land of Egypt?” 12So God spoke to Moses, saying, “I will be with you, and this [shall be] the sign to you that I send you forth, when you bring out My people out of Egypt, then you* will serve God in this mountain.” [cp. Acts 7:7]

        13And Moses said to God, “Behold, I will come to the sons [and daughters] of Israel, and will say to them, ‘The God of our fathers has sent me to you*;’ and they will ask me, ‘What [is] His name?’ What will I say to them?” 14And God spoke to Moses, “I AM THE BEING!” [Heb., “I AM WHO I AM!”] And He said, “Thus will you* say to the sons [and daughters] of Israel, ‘THE BEING [Heb., I AM] has sent me to you*.’” 15And God said again to Moses, “Thus will you say to the sons [and daughters] of Israel, ‘The LORD God of our fathers, [the] God of Abraham, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, has sent me to you*.’ This is My name forever, and a memorial from generations to generations.

        16“Go then, gather the council of elders of the sons [and daughters] of Israel, and you will say to them, ‘The LORD God of our fathers has appeared to me, [the] God of Abraham, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, saying, “A visitation I have visited [fig., I have surely looked upon] you*, and as many [things] as have happened to you* in Egypt. 17And I said, I will bring you* up out of the oppression of the Egyptians into the land of the Canaanites and the Hittites, and Amorites and Pherezites, and Gergesites, and Evites, and Jebusites, to a land flowing [with] milk and honey.’”

        18“And they shall listen to your voice, and you and the council of elders of Israel will go in to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and you will say to him, ‘The God of the Hebrews has summoned us; we shall go then a journey of three days into the wilderness, that we shall sacrifice to our God.’ 19But I know that Pharaoh king of Egypt will not let you* go, except with a mighty hand. 20And I will stretch out My hand, and strike the Egyptians with all My wonders, which I will work among them, and after this he will send you* forth. 21And I will give this people grace [or, favor] in the sight of the Egyptians, and whenever you* shall escape, you* will not depart empty. 22[Every] woman will ask from [her] neighbor and fellow lodger, articles of silver and gold, and clothing; and you* will put [them] upon your* sons and upon your* daughters, and you* will spoil the Egyptians.”

 

4

Then Moses answered and said, “If then they do not believe me, nor listen to my voice (for they will say, ‘God has not appeared to you’), what will I say to them?” 2So the LORD said to him, “What is this is in your hand?” And he said, “A staff.” 3And He said, “Cast it upon the ground.” And he cast it upon the ground, and it became a serpent, and Moses fled from it. 4And the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand, and take hold of its tail” (so he stretched out his hand and took hold of the tail, and it became a staff in his hand), 5“that they shall believe you, that the LORD God of your fathers has appeared to you, [the] God of Abraham, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob.”

            6Then the LORD said again to him, “Put your hand into your bosom.” And he put his hand into his bosom, and brought his hand out of his bosom, and his hand became as snow. 7And He said, “Put your hand again into your bosom.” And he put his hand into his bosom, and brought his hand out of his bosom, and it was again restored to the complexion of his flesh. 8“Then if they shall not believe you, nor listen to the voice of the first sign, they will believe you [because] of the voice of the last sign. 9And it will be if they will not believe you for these two signs, nor listen to your voice, you will take of the water of the river and pour it upon the dry [land], and the water which you will take from the river will be blood upon the dry [land].”

        10Then Moses said to the LORD, “I implore [You], LORD, I am not sufficient before yesterday, neither before the third day [fig., in former times], neither from when You began to be speaking to Your servant. I am weak in speech, and slow-tongued.” 11So the LORD said to Moses, “Who has given a mouth to humanity, and who has made [the] deaf, and [the] mute, [the] seeing and [the] blind? [Have] not I, GOD? 12And now go, and I will open your mouth, and will instruct you in what you are about to say.”

        13And Moses said, “I implore [You], LORD, appoint Yourself another able [person] whom You will send.” 14And the LORD having been enraged with anger [fig., was greatly angered] against Moses, and said, “Behold, [is] not Aaron the Levite your brother? I know that speaking, he will speak [fig., he will surely speak] to you; and, behold, he will come out to a meeting with you, and having seen you he will rejoice within himself. 15And you will speak to him; and you will put My words into his mouth, and I will open your mouth and his mouth, and I will instruct you* in what you* will do. 16And he will speak for you to the people, and he will be your mouth, but to him you will be [as] God. 17And this staff, the one having turned into a serpent, you will take in your hand, in which you will do in it the signs.”

        18Then Moses went and returned to Jethro his father-in-law, and says, “I will go and return to my brothers in Egypt, and will see for myself if they are yet living.” And Jethro said to Moses, “Go, being in good health.”

        Now after many days, the king of Egypt died. 19Then the LORD said to Moses in Midian, “Go, depart into Egypt, for all the ones seeking your life have died.” 20So Moses having taken his wife and his children, mounted them on the donkeys, and returned to Egypt; and Moses took the staff, the one from God, in his hand.

        21Then the LORD said to Moses, “You [are] going and returning to Egypt; see all the wonders [or, miracles] which I gave into your hands; you will work them before Pharaoh. But I will harden his heart, and by no means will he send away the people. 22Then you will say to Pharaoh, ‘These things says the LORD, “Israel [is] My firstborn son. 23So I said to you, ‘Send away My people, that they shall serve [or, worship] Me: now if you are not willing to send them away, see then, I will kill your firstborn son.”’”

        24Now it happened, [the] Angel of the LORD met him by the way at the inn, and was seeking to kill him. 25And Zipporah having taken a stone cut off the foreskin of her son, and fell at his feet and said, “The blood of the circumcision of my child is established.” 26And He departed from him, because she said, “The blood of the circumcision of my son is established.”

            27Now the LORD said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness to a meeting with Moses.” And he went and met him in the mountain of God, and they kissed each other. 28And Moses reported to Aaron all the words of the LORD, which He sent, and all the signs which He commanded to him.

        29Then Moses and Aaron went and gathered the council of elders of the sons [and daughters] of Israel. 30And Aaron spoke all these words, which GOD spoke to Moses, and did the signs before the people. 31And the people believed and rejoiced, because God visited the sons [and daughters] of Israel, and because He saw their affliction. Then the people bowed and prostrated themselves in worship.

 

Translator’s Note

 

        Occasionally, the LXX includes extended “extra” passages that are not found in the Hebrew text. It is a matter of debate whether these extra passages are inspired or not. As such, I wasn’t sure how to handle these passages in Volumes One and Two of the ALT: OT. There were few such passages in Volume One (e.g., Gen 46:20). But in Volume Two, there were several such passages, especially in 1Kings and Esther. I did not include the extra passages in 1Kings as they were mostly just repetitious of material found elsewhere in 1Kings. But I did include the passages in Esther. I did so as they included mainly “new” material.

        This extra material can be identified in Volumes One and Two as they are generally included at the end of numbered verses, making those verses rather long, sometimes up to several paragraphs. In Esther, the passages are found in 1:1; 3:13; 4:17; 5:1; 8:12; 10:3. Starting with Volume Three, I will include these extra passages but enclose them in brace brackets. But, unfortunately, I did not think of enclosing such materials in brace brackets until after Volumes One and Two were published.

    Similarly, the LXX includes books that are not found in the Hebrew text. These are called apocryphal or deuterocanonical books. There again is debate whether these “extra” books are inspired or not. None of them are included in Jewish or Protestant Bibles, but many are included in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles. As such, Volume Five of this ALT: OT will contain these apocryphal/ deuterocanonical books.

 

 

Translator’s Note for Online Bookstores Paperback

 

    The following note appears only in the paperback version of Volume One available from Amazon and other online bookstores:

        Occasionally, the LXX includes “extra” passages that are not found in the Hebrew text. It is a matter of debate whether these extra passages are inspired or not. As such, I wasn’t sure how to handle these passages when I started this project. The only such passage of significance in Volume One is after Genesis 46:20. It was included without notation in the 2012 edition of this volume. But in this 2014 edition, that passage is enclosed in brace brackets, e.g. {…}. The only other extra passage enclosed in brace brackets in this volume is Genesis 35:16.

        There are a few other minor differences between this 2014 edition versus the 2012 edition. As I was working on the additional volumes, I was making changes throughout the OT to be as consistent as possible in my translations. But the changes are mostly minor, so this is not a second edition. It is Edition 1.1.

 

        To explain, when I first published Volume One, I made it available in all of the formats indicated at the top of this page and in paperback format to be sold at online bookstores, but no one purchased that version, probably because it is more expensive than the Lulu paperback and far more expensive than the digital versions. As such, I did not bother to make Volumes Two to Five available in paperback format at online bookstores. But after Volume Five was published, I checked my revenue report and saw that several copies of Volume One in that format had sold by that time, so I figured it was worthwhile to make the rest of the volumes available in that format as well. But by then I had made the indicated changes to the texts of Volumes Two to Four. And since those would contain the updated text, I figured I might as well update Volume One in that format as well. But the amount of work to update all of the volumes in all of the formats would be prohibitive.

        The online bookstores paperback version also uses a higher quality paper than the Lulu paperback version. Only the reader can decide if the these slight differences between the Lulu versus the bookstores paperback justifies the higher price. But if you wish to purchase the bookstores versions, they are available at **add search link to all volumes** and elsewhere.

 


Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the Old New Testament: Volume I: The Torah. Copyright © 2012 by Gary F. Zeolla (www.Zeolla.org).


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